Chia, the recently launched cryptocurrency based on the premise of using space and time for consensus, has a promise of being the “green” among the cryptocurrencies. I won’t go into too much detail on Chia or how the technology works, as you can easily find many useful sources on the internet. In this article, I would like to share my experience jumping into Chia farming (similar to mining for other cryptocurrencies) for the first time. Please judge harshly.

Having been in the digital storage industry, I was excited to jump on to this recently. Instead of doing my homework and…

Even though options are the main instrument for our trading strategy as an options trader, chances are we will at some point end up with open equity positions. We may want to open covered calls, long equity to cover existing call options, or end up getting assigned. Part 1 and Part 2 show us how to calculate cash capital for our account, but when we have long equity positions in the mix, we might see something odd. Have a look at the graph in Graph 1.

Graph 1 — cash capital delta

Recall that this is the delta between the capital and principal, showing us in…

Tesla, Tesla, Tesla. The moment someone mentioned it to you, you’ll start to notice them more and more on the streets, particularly if someone you know is an absolute Tesla cult member. Should you really have to pay for such an expensive mode of transportation? If you’ve really got to get one (due to personal desire, peer pressure, or just plain making someone else happy), should you buy it or should you lease? …

For every opening, there is a closing, at some point. Can we see the profits? Do we expect to win it all or lose some battles? How much impact do the wins have versus the losses? What is our closing strategy anyway? Let’s continue the journey and see what can be revealed.

From The openings, we were able to extract the transactions specific to options and retrieve the opens. With a slight tweak, we can extract all the closes as follow:

Filter for closing option transactions

Note that we extract both CLOSING, which are active trades, and REMOVAL OF OPTION, which are inactive transactions such…

This part takes an interest in looking at the opening trades and extracting information from the transactional data that is available to us. From the information, we’ll attempt to gather trading behavior and perhaps tell a brief story. What trading strategy does the account holder deploy? What are some of the things that can influence opening trades? Are the trades generally for credit or debit? Is the behavior consistent? These are some of the questions we can attempt to find out.

We pick up from Part 1 and Part 2, using the previously mentioned techniques to load the transaction data…

In Part 1, we started our journey by first obtaining and learning about transactional brokerage data, creating Pandas dataframe, and performing basic analytic techniques to calculate the running capital and principal based on this data. Though this is a start, I am personally a visual person so in this part, let’s explore what’s available to us to visualize the information we’ve gathered. There are several popular visualization libraries available, such as Matplotlib and Altair. Let’s explore how we can utilizeAltair for visualization.

Continuing from where we left off, we simply import altair.

import json
import pandas as pd
from import json_normalize

As an options trader, it is important to be able to monitor your performance and at the very least know whether or not your strategies are working and that you’re profitable. In the beginning, I tracked my trades using Excel, essentially keeping a record of each opening and closing trades. See figure 1. The numbers are obviously for example purposes only, but note the relationship between them.

Figure 1 — Tracking with Excel

For opening trades, we record the price and number of contracts, where the price is recorded as a debit (negative) for buys and a credit (positive) for sells. Upon closing of the corresponding…

Failed Tests

Let’s redirect our attention once again to the SsdSim code. From the latest release tag, we have a set of tests and of which there are 2 failed tests: BasicRepeatedWriteReadVerify and BasicDescendingWriteReadVerify.

We can understand what these tests are doing with a quick inspection. The BasicRepeatedWriteReadVerify test is dead simple. It tries to write and read verify to LBA 0 with a sector count of 256 sectors each command, twice. The BasicDescendingWriteReadVerify performs write and read verify starting at the end LBA space and going in the decremental direction. Also with a sector count of 256. Being basic “data integrity”…

In this part, we will discuss changes to the SsdSim code in order to support asynchronous host data transfer and add the ability to handle the case when we are unable to obtain a buffer resource. It would actually make more sense to cover this along with Part 14, but the code can change quite a bit and I’d like to keep it in step-by-step, minimal change progression, as much as possible.

To support asynchronous host data transfer, we can start by looking at our own example with the NandHal. The NandHal currently supports asynchronous operations by having these characteristics:

Search the web for what makes SSD better than HDD and you’ll find things along the line of “no moving parts” and “better performance”. With performance being one of the pillars of SSD, we’ll do ourselves some service and lay down the fundamentals of performance metrics. As we develop our SSD firmware, particularly the flash translation layer, we’ll have to be performance conscious throughout the development cycle and understand the things that affect performance in different situations. In the cases where we need to favor other things over performance, we’ll have to understand the trade-offs we’re making.

The cornerstones of…

Lan D. Phan

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